07. Multitudes 7 : December 2001

Multitudes : December

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MAJEURE : Après Gêne, après New York

Fascisme à Gênes

Through invasion of the Diaz school, where held the electronic coordination of the demonstrators, and the extravagantly violent treatment of the arrested activists gives evidence of the fat that fascism did not die, and is openly tolerated by the leaders of present states. A police plan fiction, imagined by the author, allows to realize the set of incidents without dissociating the groups some of the others. The author returns so justice to all the multitudes of their common membership of the movement.

Lettre sur les Tute Bianche
Tute Bianche are not a movement but a device of subjectivation working inside vaster movements. Each is free to put or to remove Tute Bianca. It indicates that he respects the style of it: the refusal of the separation violence/nonviolence, reference to t zapatisme, the relationship of a particular type with the media. Tute Bianche are auto-sarcastic, ironic, rich in invention. In search of a hegemony of minority cultures, they put in crisis representations, destabilize media, etc. But if since Seattle one can speak about a real movement it is mainly because hundred thousand persons put their body at the risk of the bats, of the eargas, and now, balls.

À l’ére de la sécurité sociale mondiale
The anti-global movement as the growth of new economies in peripheries contrast the symbolic leadership of American brands. The terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, highly symbolic too, appeared at the very moment when the new economy crisis became obvious. It is not possible to grow up information means too much, because consumers cannot pay them attention enough. But the knowledge produced by multitudes remain in their brain while crisis is around.

Apocalypse New York
A new disorder appears with the destruction of the WTC, but does it mean the end of the isolationism of the USA, world presence of which has never stopped existing notably under an immaterial shape. Really caesura of September n is in thousand civil victims who made ledge world trade: for the terrorism it is necessary that a whole population is afraid fir its life. The capitalist antiglobalization developed in very big speed blocking strategic objectives of the capitalism, Theocratic islam aspires now, to mime the power of the Multitudes, also we have to defend a politics of the Multitudes which develops democracy and strengthens the spaces of freedom.

Nouvelles d’Amérique
Michael Hardt emphasizes the non hierarchical structure, in network, of anti-globalization movements. Having international organizations for target, they have no anti-American character of the movements which preceded them. Since September n they are the object of a questioning coming from media because of their political violence. For Michael Hardt true retort in the terrorism is not the limitation of liberties, but on the contrary the extension of the democracy at a world level. The American military device has beautiful to possess certain monopoly of the technologies of destruction it does not mean that the United States can impose their law, because there is no centre in the world power. The terrorists make a mistake by attacking the United-States as nation. Empire requires quite other shape of politics.

La théologie politique japonaise
Traumatized with the national « blunder » of the Gulf War, the Japanese government tries now to cross a historic threshold: contribution to the war for the « new world order » must not be limited any more to finances, but widened in the military cooperation, which is formally forbidden with the Constitution. A revision of that this is nevertheless unthinkable, because the political tension which would be then created would return the new late Constitution on the situation. Where from big current effort to coexist legal pacifism and military «duty », to deny and assert at the same time the current Constitution. « Theological » attempt which invents funny solutions.

Nous sommes allés à gênes, nous désertons leur guerre.
Genou, an extraordinary event. Network of networks, links between differences around shared radical objectives : illegitimacy of G8, civil disobedience etc. The multitudes in open conflict against the power of the Empire were confronted with the global Sovereign, with the bare and rough exercise of the force. But beyond summits and beyond their symbolic reach, the Multitudes are today called to confront with the set of the production and with the expropriation of the social wealth. A jump is necessary from the civil disobedience to social disobedience. But on September n changes the horizon. Manathan it is the end of all the ambiguities and it is the beginning of the Permanent Global War necessary for the reproduction of power in the era of the globalization. Social disobedience has to be then disobedience in a « War empire », desertion.

Ruptures dans l’Empire, puissance de l’exode
New York constitutes a break of the process of imperial constitution. Multiple crisis which takes three essential forms (military, currency and communication) it concerns imperial sovereign power. Answer- war wants the constituent shape of the new order. Too much far from any keynesian logic the State intervenes here according to neoliberal authoritarian logic as one of the poles of the report of sovereign power. In front of the Empire and of his copy – terrorism, desertion and exodus are the political laboratory of the multitudes.

Questions d’Empire
The attack of September 11 verified M Hardt’s and T Negri’s main thesis and by breaking with the politics of nation-state, Empire materializes under our eyes. At the same time however, event leads us to question definitions proposed in their book. It seems that we attend the end of the « small crises» which characterized Empire. And that the current visibility is how a protest against the definition of its essence as « abstract machine ». But the most serious problem is in its «ontological » foundation: the Multitudes. If they are they who support and determine the state of the Empire, are they forced to keep pace with this last one, including when the stability seems shaken ? Which is then the line of possible flight for the Multitudes ?

Des guerres asymétriques ?
There are still no strategic consequences of September 11 but causes. Among these, the invention of a genocidal armed attack coming from the inside of the United States, while the system of defense was not ready for this asymmetric war, nevertheless anticipated with geo-strategists. Consequentially, the United States showed themselves not capable to defend themselves against the social and ideological consequences of their absolute superiority and also the world opposition in the effects of the globalization, administered by the United States but also by the European Union. The strategic culture of the United States shows that they do not look in conquest for world, or in appropriation of new territories, but to dominate it economically and culturally. By assuming the leadership of the military intervention the United States offer themselves at the same moment as master of the world and as hirelings for the benefit of the global system of market economy.

Multitudes en fugues
A presentation of some pieces taken from the editorial board electronic discussion about the concept of multitude. Multitude is a virtual social form; it is the networking of differing subjectivities in search about the common, the equal, the life. The multitude is the living as acting. It is a work method the limits of which are those of the present state of globalisation.

Multitudes et principe d’individuation
The concept of« multitude » opposes for a long time to that of the « people ». The people is a homogeneous unity, whereas the multitude is a network of peculiarities. The individuals who compose the multitude are not nevertheless atoms of one given but the result of a process of individuation. Of what consists this individuation which produces the individual from universal conditions ? One can tempt an answer by using Gilbert Simondon’s reflections and Russian psychologist L. Vygotskij. With the aid of these authors one will end maybe in a more relevant comprehension of the Marxian concept of« social individual ».

HORS-CHAMPS : nations meutrières

Comparer l’incomparable
What international law has come to describe as genocide has evidently become a privileged form of politics in the 20th century. In this perspective, three questions present themselves-genocide’s relationship to the past, its nature, and its future. When compared to ail previous massacres, the extermination-form seems to be original, even though it draws on an ancient arsenal of forms of hatred (the case of anti-Semitism). Genocide is state violence taken to the extreme, a violence that defies the logic of war and depredation and is instead preferentially directed against its own populace. In the end, genocide finds its purpose in the prospect of self-purification, which, totally in disregard of the conditions required to form an authentic people, can proceed as far as self-extermination. Genocide’s goal can thus no longer besought in the elimination of the victim, but rush, r fist and foremost in terms of a radical crisis in the construction of identity. If Nazism is the most extreme example, the genocide in Rwanda appears to be the most pure. One might think that industrialized States have passed beyond this stage, because they judge it too costly, but that they have bequeathed it to the entities (not necessarily States) they dominate, whose identities have been gradually shattered under the pressure of decades of colonization, and now of globalization.

MINEURE : Tarde intempestif

Différence et répétition de Gabriel Tarde
If we begin to sense that Deleuze will have been the first to recognize Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904) as a kind of «precursor » which he explored in his most untimely actuality, the constitutive character of Tarde’s inspiration for Deleuze has not been closely studied. It seems, however, as if Deleuze’s critique and overcoming of structuralist thought depends upon this reactualisation of Tarde’s work. This will allow us to better understand the extended »forgetting » of’ Tarde, buried for so long under the Durkheimian structural model which has dominated the social and human sciences.

Tarde, puissances de l’invention
Commenting La logique sociale of Gabriel Tarde, René Schérer demonstrates the striking lines of a thought completely devoted to the idea of invention : in ersubju7ive vision of the social, distinction between creation and reproduction and between invention and a rehearsal which characterizes as much work as capital, power and enjoyment of an invention made by peculiar associations, opening in, and on others and multiplicities, aversion of any binding system. He drows-up a parallel between this not-academic thinker aril Charles Fourier’s system, to open on the social conceived as a planetary brain

Tarde ; une nouvelle monadologie.
Why Tarde is interested by Leibnitz’s monads ? That they come to make in the analysis of the social field ? The concept of monad, be necessary as a refutation of the slowness of the Cartesian mechanism. By vitalism immanent in the nature, the monadology distinguishes itself from any atomism. By considering that « The material is spirit, anything more » Tarde understands that any thing is already a society, showing a social link between the differences which it associates. All is political in the composition of the least particle ; a molecular politics which spatters on the society, to undo the macroscopic forms of power. Where from the idea of one biopower. There are no cuts between technical production and natural generation. The machine which is not reduced in mechanics carries in him ecological affinities.

La psychologie économique contre l’Economie politique
Because of his ontology oft force and desire Gabriel Tarde’s philosophy constitutes a toolskit to wonder about the contemporary Capitalism. Economic Psychology supposes cooperation autonomous and independent from human beings co-producting by composing their differences. Tarde, indeed, wonder about the conditions of the production of the new which it sees in the « cooperation between brains » : brains act some on the others by desires, faiths and affects. Tarde do the « production of knowledge. » the real production of the modern societies, which results in an economy of the traffic, the streams of desire and the faith. Economics is not a theory of the production but a theory of the reproduction.

Tarde, commun sensationnel
Tarde make of the art a plan of invention (and imitation) which leaves of a very wide definition – everything human making- to include meanings of the word more specialized. He does not break only so privilege indû of fine art, but accentuates the capacity of the art, fundamental for the, contemporary societies, to socialize very sensations, communicating in a common sensational, the difference of the individuals.

Tarde avec Park ; À quoi servent les foules ?
Two forms of influence and action are in the program of the Social Psychology of Tarde : The crowds and the actions in the contact on one hand, the public and the actions at distance on the other hand. A public is shape of evolved sociality and association, he bases on the suggestion at distance. What characterizes the crowd of Tarde are the currents which cross her. Bat, in fad, crowd is a shape of the past. Incapable to extend ; she leave the place to the public. One finds a similar vision in Robert Park’s « The Crowd and the Public » where dimension ephemeral collective behaviour; the contagion of ideas, mobilizes the interest of the school of Chicago. Really this group conceives Social Psychology as movement by which sociology frees itself from the homo-economicus Park leans on the theory of the imitation of Tarde to base his interactionnist sociology . The movements which try to reorganize attention arc in fact processes of individualization where the individuals constitutes a state of the social process. Park one american, Tarde ?


Les femmes en noir de Jérusalem
Women in black » of Jerusalem appeared during first Intifada. Every Friday, Place of France in Jerusalem-Fast their posters « End of occupation » say clearly in English, in Hebrew and in Arabic their refusal of the politics of occupation of territories, which there is no possible peace without the occupied territories are returned and constitute a Palestinian State. As Mothers of the May place which inspired them their tenacity paid: they became symbolic of the nonviolent resistance of the women in a situation of injustice. The other groups of women in black built up themselves, through the world, in Colombia, Italy. Spain, USA…

Le problème palestinien non résolu ; l’effet « aimant » demeure
Analysis of the stake that represents Palestinian problem not resolved on the geostrategic chessboard and attempts of illegal securement of the legitimacy of the cause of which it is the object once again after September 11.