05. Multitudes 5 : May 2001

Multitudes : May

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MAJEURE : Propriété intellecutelle

Richesse, propriété, liberté et revenu dans le « capitalisme cognitif »
With the metamorphosis of the value and the change of regime of the accumulation which question all the postulates of the political economy, cognitive capitalism tries to reconstitute new rights of property, news « enclosures » which set in the case of new services or information’s goods of mixed or hybrid forms between the freedom of charge and the market. But trade exchange is hindered by the increasing weight of the positive externalities. What puts in the agenda the question of the payment for the activity of the artist or the creator as it is producing of one much more and more collective.

Petite histoire des batailles du droit d’auteur
Anne Latournerie draws up a complete panorama of genesis and history of the french concept of copyright through the social and legal battles which took place of the antiquity until the big 1957’s law of setting demands of the authors against publishers and these against following reproductions She puts in evidence the permanent data of the question of intellectual property (rights of the creative person, responsibility, organization of the market, protection against the copy, distribution of knowledge, public property etc.) which forged the originality of a french copyright characterized with a dismemberment of the formes of appropriation in moral rights and patrimonial rights and with their limitation in the duration, with associated contractual forms.

Propriété intellectuelle et brevets logiciels. Théorie et pratique
Thierry Laronde basing on the statement of the social utility of ideas, to denounce the policy of the European Office of Patents in which he blames for accepting in facts, software patenting and limit so the social circulation of ideas. Indeed in the case of the software, originality, only patentable, does not lie as in the theory (the idea) as in an implementation by a soft-engineer which participates in a chain in which the assertion of an individual right is difficult even impossible. A contrario GNU’s General Public Licence facilitates the distribution of the knowledge’s distribution, by the spread and the re-use of the code even though it does not offer any guarantee against the patenting of ideas.

La musique en ligne? Un service public!
Si, sur le Net, copier n’est pas voler, comment répondre à cette soif de musique gratuite qui ne risque pas de s’apaiser de sitôt? Par une proposition en forme d’utopie réaliste ou de boutade pas si loufoque : transformer Napster ou les sites qui prennent sa relève en un projet de nouveau service public mondial…

268 millions de poèmes et quelques. De l’immoralité des droits moraux
The experience of the free software reveals us possibility and necessity of thinking otherwise the institutions which govern cooperation between brains : invention and cooperation became inextricable. Through the example of the suspension of the exploitation on Internet of a software of composition of poems in the logic of the « 268 million poems » of Raymond Queneau because copyrights were not expired, Luce Libera criticizes copyrights, such as they were thought since the revolution. The wantonness of the knowledge imposes a different way to think the criteria of distribution of the wealth.

Des génériques à tout prix
To by-pass the barrier of the price for treatments anti-VIH / AIDS, the States of the South can use legal breaches in the system of patents and in the industrial property, as agreements Trips. And so Brazil and India make generic anti-retrovir less expensive 8o % But this way turns out impracticable for the poorest countries which have to face the dominion of labs which make everything to keep their monopoly. So Act Up-Paris demands the abolition, pure and simple, of intellectual property to be able to produce massively and without obstacle of credits, and save so lives, while it is even time.

L’anarchisme triomphant. Le logiciel libre et la mort du copyright
In this free software community cult text, Eben Moglen analyzing the generic character that acquired, henceforth, the software production, questions the current system of intellectual property based on the copyright, because : « software cross freely network ». This jurist draws up a social, technical and scientific history of the software and its modes of appropriation as well as of free software of which he establishes legal and political libertarian theory… At a time of the digital, the modes of production and communication having radically changed, he forecasts the obsolescence of the copyright.

MINEURE : Agencements subjectif posés sur l’Internet

Le cyber-communisme, ou le dépassement du capitalisme dans le cyberespace
Richard Barbrook demonstrate that Americans are very good at doing the contrary of what they are supposed to abide by, i.e. capitalist commodification, and engage instead in a digital economy based on exchange, sharing and the free gift labor, idea, and practices. The tone may be ironic, or downwar facetious, but that should not detract from the issue at stake : the cyberage end of the line for a ‘cognitive’ capitalism that will prove unable to surmount the « irresoluble contradictions » of its own making.

Techno-nomadisme et pensée rhizomatique
Answering to Richard Barbrook’s statements concerning the « the numeric nobility » and « Californian » ideology; Bifo who has lived directly events bound by free radios adventure (Radio Alice) restores facts and institutionalizing meaning of Felix Guattari’s activist activity. Through the figure of the « technos-nomads », he shows how rhizomatic thought is alone in capacity to realize current changes in the networks universes. He puts bombast it, «aesthetics paradigm » only to realize and to fight against the depth of the contemporary infringements on the sensibility.

L’anneau d’or : intelligence collective et propriété intellectuelle
Intellectual property is needed for the fueling of the collective intelligence dynamics because it attracts (we are hoping) a monetary flux breeding new ideas, driving a continuous enlargement of the cercle of available ideas. But if the renunciation of intellectual property is voluntary, it can, in certain cases, accelerate the creative process, especially in the new conditions of cyberculture.

L’amateur : émergence d’une figure politique en milieu numérique
I will point out how the hypermedration context’s produces original intermediate relations between expression and reception, which represents a genuine mutation of symbolic knowledge. Our societies must carry about these mutations because they underlie the basis of democracy in the « International Hypermedia Republic ».

Les travailleurs du temps libre et la reconfiguration de l’espace public: quelques hypothèses sur le travail de Pierre Huyghe
Basing on one criticism of the narrative statement by has subject – actor, Jean-Christophe Royoux sees the singularity of the aesthetic work of Pierre Huyghe in new modality of the story where there is only one anti-actor who calls to spectators-free-time workers and produces by copy out a multiplicity of possible interpretations. Free time workers in the centres of the conflict of modern subjectivity have to invent one response in the question « How to live in the public space today ?