01. Multitudes 1 : March 2000

Multitudes : March

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MAJEURE : Biopolitics and biopower
Foucault warned us about modern power taking care, managing life rather than forbidding and killing. Multitudes has asked some friends and philosophers to adress the consequences of this biopower for political subjectivity.

1° Biopolitical production
by Michael Hardt, Toni Negri
In global control society work is no longer organised through national norms. It is taken up in information networks. As Marx foresaw, workers belong to the general intellect, the great imperial communication machine. Order is kept by moral and military interventions. All forms of legitimacy concentrate together.

2° From biopower to biopolitics
by Maurizio Lazzarato
Biopower agregates no longer families distributed on land but mobile individuals. How can power count forces and take energy from them, if they differ from each other, if they are free? Power comes from beneath, from strategic relations between subjects.

3° Comeback to the camp as a biopolitical paradigm
by Bernard Aspe, Muriel Combes
Criticism to Giorgio Agamben as a negationnist can’t stay in front of his last two books Homo sacer and Ce qui reste d’Auchwitz. The nazist policy has organized confrontation between power and naked life. Still, inside the camp, exclusion has worked again. Biopower excludes from mankind, and reveals non-man as its product.

4° On law and life
by Paolo Napoli
Biopolitics, as interaction of power and subjectivity, creates new ways of making law. It is no longer the definition of borders. It gives legitimacy to emerging practices.

5° Live warm and think cold
by Peter Sloterdijk
Answering Eric Alliez, P. S. introduces himself as a fighter in philosophy to be made in the open air, with non-professional philosophers. After Nietzsche, we must think life as possible with human beings having a common sense of truth, even if philosophers hide this sense under a unique compulsory representation. Comfort in life is necessary to explore the cold sky of nature. Then let us build a dyonisiac materialism in which Foucault opened the way.

6° Biopolitics or politics?
by Jacques Rancière
According to Jacques Rancière, the «police» regulates relations between bodies, and Foucault is concerned only with it, biopower being its most modern form. Rancière opposes to the hypothesis of biopolitics of subjects his conception of politics of equality.

7° Biopower and public life
by Bruno Latour
Political philosophy reduced man to a speaking being and forgot his old trade with nature. We discover back this trade, as a political object, an issue for militancy, and we don’t believe any longer in mankind power.

8° If life become resistance…
by Isabelle Stengers
Informer days to resist power was just to live in spite of differences in thought, religion, etc… Today the State is ready to compromise on anything, arguing it protects life. What can resistance become then?

9° How we broke down WTO
by Starhawk
Resistance to WTO in Seattle was made by a new kind of coordination between minority groups. Their non violent organisation has stopped repression. A new vision of action is born.

10° Power and resistance spiralling
by Matthieu Potte Bonneville
The actual philosopher difficulty is linked to the capture of his theories by the State. Law is confused with its modification; biopolitics is made either as a field of questions, politics, or an order in reality, police. Resistance makes you a partner of the biopower, but gives you resources to contest further, inside the limits of biopower itself, out of radical poorness.

11° Biopiracy or bioprivateering
by Richard Stallman
The godfather of free software points to the limits of the idea of «biopiracy», diversion of biological patents, and reaffirms the necessity of deprivatizing molecules, for both north and south.


1° Empire and slave trade : Seattle’spring considered from Brazil
by Giuseppe Cocco
The left in Brazil, in its caduque labour statism, missed the battle of Seattle, and ignores the virtualities of urban masses.

MINEURE:Free softwear

1° Cooperation and immaterial production in free software
by Laurent Moineau, Aris Papatheodorou
From the genesis of the Unix, a cooperative operating system, to mass productive cooperation around GNU/Linux and free software, it is about seizing the caracteristics of an emergent model, in and against the new capitalist productive arrangement.

2° An introduction to free software
by Jérôme Gleizes
Rapid presentation of debates and stakes created by the existence of a new kind of software, departing from rules of private property.

3° The passion for free : Conversation with Richard Stallman
The godfather of free software considers today’s stakes, and foresees the political turning points in the future of GNU/Linux.


1° One, multiple, multiplicity/ies
by Alain Badiou
The philosopher replies to reactions provoked by his book about Gilles Deleuze in 1997, that were published by Futur Antérieur.


1° If you don’t like painting, don’t put others off it
by Gérard Fromanger
In a ten years distance, the artist answers a question about the end of art by the persistant simplicity of the pictural gesture.

2° Otto Mühl, Austrian actionnist
Historical actionnist from Vienna, Otto Mühl speaks out for the first time about the years of the Commune, an experimental community on borders of art, politics and sex.