06. Multitudes 6 : September 2001

Multitudes : September

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MAJEURE : Raison métisse

La Res publica subvertie : Exposition de l’universel aux revendications partielles
To what extend can the universal be exposed to sped struggles and partial claimings ? Taking into account the fragmentation of the political fabric, without dropping the emancipation ideal, induces to begin a positive deconstruction of the universal, to make it come within the division framework, to understand it in its hegemonic singularity, within the particular that sustains it, that subverts it, but that also accepts to subvert itself in the strategy. The point is then to refuse any neutral and direct understanding of the universal, and any hope of a simple, definite and dull subsumption of the particular within the universal.

Badiou. La grâce de l’universel
Within the continuation of the controversy provoked by Alain Badiou’s Deleuze (see Multitudes,1), the article proposes a reading of Saint Paul. The foundation of universalism which follows engages in exploring the political basement of the conflict between the two paradigms of the multiple developed respectively in the philosophies of Deleuze and Badiou. Saint Paul – or the universalism of grace against the materialism of life.

L’histoire eurocentrée
In his Dipesh Chakrabarty’s (Provincializing Europe) report, Michael Hardt finds capital governing by the levy on the society of an uniform and homogeneous temporality.. Historiographical colonial tradition always worked by temporal differentiation with regard to Europe, playing the role of universal intermediary. Chakrabarty refuses this mediation. There are no stages in historical progress but a multiplicity of incommensurable temporality existing simultaneously. Challenge is, so, to build a history of pure difference in which every event must be seized in its peculiarity

Combat du maître et de l’esclave revisité
The hegelian analysis of the fight of the master and the slave (servant) settles the circularity of the bait in the dominion. The slaves rebel because they want a master or to become masters themselves. The central proposition of the dialectic of the fight for the recognition is that the slave desire the desire the master’s desire.
Now the real plan of the relation is :
The not of the slave and its indifference
The fear of the master : the master’s not to the slave’s not. Pharaon says not to the Jewish people who wants to leave ;
The production of a situation radically other where the same disappeared as at the master as at the slave. By flattening the phase of the Exodus and the liberation of the servitude on that of the establishment of the law, one eliminates another subject’s gaping which is not that of the subject with himself, but the inflexible difference which meets the master in his desire for the slave.

Géopolitique de la connaissance, colonialité du pouvoir et différence coloniale
The concept of modern world-system from Wallerstein is still eurocentric in front of Quijano’s concept of « coloniality of power » or that from Dussel of « transmodernity ». To show that Europe has colonised, exploited, ruled the world is not enough. We need to understand the radical ignorance of others organized by the colonial power since the 16th century. Independency is not sufficient if it maintains colonial hierarchies of knowledge and power. Decolonisaton of the mind is still on the agenda.

Le duo républicanistes-nationalistes
Is republicanism defending whether nation or centralism ? Through the corsican example, and the shocks provoked by the Matignon project, the duo formed by republicans nationalists highlights their common identitarian tensions, and the difficulties in opening a political space where the varied ways of affirmation could confront each other.

La modernité et sa critique
About Japan at the beginning of the postmodernity, through the reading of David Pollack’s Fracture of Meaning and the comment of positions on is history of two young Japanese philosophers : Kôyama Iwao and Kôsaka Masaaki, Naoki Sakai problematise relations between universalism and particulartism. The identity of Japan which dialectise with which of China, exists only as Jar as Japan break loose as a particular object in the Occidental field. The criticism of the West and of modern expressed in its denunciation of the monistic history reveals that all the rhetoric of the anti-modernity is a coverage without principles of all which is modern. Because world is mainly a sphere of heterogeneity and plurality, history has to be interpreted as a synthesis of time and internationalized spaces

Mondialité, politiques de l’identité et citoyenneté
One examines the concept of « multiculturalism » to underline its two universalist readings. The first : in spite of our differences, we are every human beings, the second: due to our differences we reach humanity. At the age of the globalization, this debate opens to the stakes in the crisis of the citizenship and the re-humanization of the civil space where we live. Cosmopolitics which makes the apology of a modular or flexible citizenship takes in break nationalist postures and local roots.

MINEURE : Ville et mondialisation

La ville nouveau territoire productif
Beyond determinism as economic as technological on the globalization, the emergence of cities as actors of the new productions of services in the goods advances the essential political dimension of-the modern relationship of production. Between States and multinationals, the other territorialized relations assert themselves that it is important to invest

De Porto Alegre à Gênes, la ville dans la mondialisation
In front of deterritorialisation / reterritorialisation process one which characterize the globalization, we try to dread the elements of continuance and break which connect among them the Forums of Porto Alegre and Genoa; these two big mobilizations of citizens of world constitute, indeed, the most relevant repository in a debate on the city. By tempting these comparisons, we build an approach of the new cycle of internationalist fights which puts production and constitution of urbanterritories as main stakes in the future developments of the movement.

La spécificité des villes européennes, contre la ville générique
The urban space, in Europe, is, today, an intermediate environment which absorbs the unpredictable variations of the world of the life and declines them according to a code registered in the present materialism of the urban condition. This local device of innovation can he today tracked down through the auto-organization of certain systems of alteration of the territory. Instead of taking the shape of duly stamped Projects or a public Politics, this characteristic device of the European urban condition tends to show itself in the « common » reality of the processes of evolution.

Nouvelles urbanités des friches
In front of dominant speeches on the world-city the global or generic city, we set the hypothesis of news territorialisations and of redefining of the locations of cities in the search for the assertion of productive sped cities. The example of the new development of the industrial-harbour fallow lands marks exactly that it exists today, according to cities, either a production completely standardizing of the city or specific valuations.

INSERT: Israel / Palestine

Le droit du peuple palestinien à lutter contre l’occupation
Facing israelian intransigent Ilan Halevi explain the failure of Oslo’s agreement, from the first intifada to the second. The archaic structure of Israel in front of pluriethnic and multi-denominational society, holds only because the society defines as being in war.
There is only an international intervention which can prevent, the risk to pass of hundred deaths to thousand deaths… This intervention is necessary, only because it can realize for the Israeli opinion which it is impossible to settle question by force. The Israelis do not stop saying « we shall not negotiate under the fire », but Palestinians always knew that they are making peace, under the fire, colonial and military violence never broke off.

HORS CHAMPS : Procédures d’exception

Politiques de la mémoire
How to avoid that light on facts and past acts implodes any community which tempts a refondation? The treatment of the hatred, which accompanies civil war, is one of the most pointed cyclical problems in politics The essay concerns two procedures of exception : in Athens, after civil war, decree of 403, first procedure of amnesty ; and, in current South Africa, the commission of the Truth and Conciliation. That one confronts with a «normal» procedure: that of the management of the sensitive archives, such as we practise it in France.
On this way, one hopes to put in light certain links among political and practical discursive, and some teachings as for the manners of which can be formed the truth and the politics.